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Let us first know what actually is software development. Software development is defined as the process of conceiving, programming, computing, designing, testing, documenting and bug fixing the

various framework and databases involved in software applications.

It broadly means the writing and maintaining of source code through all cases till the desired outcome is seen or more precisely the

manifestation of the software. Hence, it can be concluded that software development research, prototyping, modification, re-engineering till the software is prepared.

The three main objectives behind developing a software are as follows :-

1. Custom software - Mainly developed to meet the specific needs of clients.

2. Commercial and open source software - Developed to cater the need of a group of users.

3. Embedded software – To control the customer products in an integrated way.

4. System software – Designed to provide a platform for some other software.


Following are the stages of developing a software :-

1. Problem analysis

2. Market research

3. Gathering tools for the decided software

4. Creating a design for the software

5. Implementation or coding of the software

6. Testing the software

7. Deployment

8. Maintenance (including bug fixing)

These are collectively known as software development life-cycle or SDLC.


1. Identification of Need – The sources for a software development can be a market research that includes opinions of customers, clients who rejected the product, other internal software developers and third party concern. The proposed software is first checked by the marketing personnel for

economic feasibility and to check if it matches with the company’s marketing objectives.

Software development is a very straining process which can often overlap with business development process which includes human resources, risk management, crisis management.

2. Planning Process – Planning is a very important stage of any process. In this stage we want to discover things. We often know about the result but don’t know how to approach. In case of software development, software engineers recognize ambiguous requirements and try to figure out the way. Frequent coding is also done to eliminate risks from the process. Once the analysis is done, a scope document is created.

3. Designing – Once the analysis and requirements are perceived, the design is made in a software design document. It involves a preliminary detail of the main module, operating system, hardware components. A low-level design, primarily a block diagram is created with prototyping.

4. Implementation, Testing and Documenting – Implementation is the process of programming a code by the software engineers.

Testing of the software involves the fixing of any defects which might create problem in the long run. Sometimes it is also done before the process of implementation.

The process of documenting is carried out throughout for future maintenance and enhancement of the model. The writing of API is done and the internal documentation is done which is lower in case of plan-driven models.

5. Deployment and Maintenance – Deployment starts as soon as the code is finalized and is ready to be sold in the production market. This requires an extra period of testing and evaluation.

The process of maintenance can take extra time since it may require the redesigning of the software to make sure that there are no faulty parts. Maintenance should be done on a regular basis to keep a check on the reported problems and fixing them.

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